Latin Grammar Notes


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Nuvola apps important.png Warning!

I did these for the first 3 or so months of Latin 1 (up until 11/14/2004) So they only over the very basics, and may not match how your teacher teaches the basics anyway. Hope they help!

Latin Grammar

  1. Pronunciation:
    1. No j,k,y,z,w
    2. So
      1. V=W
      2. C=K (always a had K (like cat))
      3. G=Go (no soft G’s like George)
    3. Vowels
      1. A=Ah (father)
      2. E=A (Aestate (sounds like I-stata-tae])
      3. I=E (Machine]
    4. Diphthong
      1. Two vowls that make an I sound (mean)
      2. AE=I (Aestate (sounds like Istatati])
      3. IA=Ya (Iam (sounds like yam))
  2. Macrons
    1. Accent marks
    2. Indicate length of shortness of vowels
    3. I am not responsible to know these now
  3. Articles
    1. Are a, the, an
    2. Ex: The Girl
  4. Verb Order
    1. Verb is often at the end of sentence
    2.  ???Does it have to be?????????? I don’t think so.
    3. You need to move words around
    4. Not every word is translatable
  5. Derivatives
    1. English words that come with Latin roots
    2. They need to share similar characteristics.
      1. Similar root
        1. Ex: Salve to Salute
      2. Similar meaning
        1. Ex: Salve means hello, greeting in Latin; Salute is to greet, welcome, or acknowledge somebody, either with a gesture or in words
  6. Parts Of Speech
    1. Nouns [Land]
      1. Persons, places, things, or ideas
      2. Nouns have:
        1. Number
          1. Singular
            1. Female= Ends in a
            2. Male= Ends in us
          2. Plural
            1. Female= Ends in ae [e sounds like i]
            2. Male= Ends in no us, add I
        2. Gender
          1. Masculine (male)
            1. Sing=us
            2. Plural= no us, add i
          2. Feminine (Female)
            1. Sing=a
            2. Plural=ae
          3. Some irregular
            1. abrore -> Plural -> arbores
        3. Use [Case]
          1. The role the noun plays in the sentence.
          2. Subject [Nominative]
            1. Does the action
            2. Ends as written before
          3. Direct Object (D.O.) [Accusative]
            1. A noun that receives the action of the verb
            2. What the verb does
            3. in/to/around are Not D.O., but prepositions
            4. Examples:
My dad Bakes A cake
My turtle Writes A symphony
subject Verb Direct object
            1. Example:
              1. Marcum conspict puella.
              2. Means: The girls catch sight of Marcus.
              3. Word order can be changed around
            2. Singular D.O. ends in M in Latin
              1. Sextum
              2. Cornelium
      1. Declensions (11/14/04) [Groups of Nouns that share endings]
  Declensions Female (1) Male (2) Male/Female (3)
Base Ends in A Us/r or
Nominative Villa Ramus Arbor
Puella Servus Vox
Flavia Sextus Fragor
  vir Clamor
  All 3rd Declention we learned >>> Patar
Accusitive Add M Add um Add em
Villam Sextum Arborem
Puellam Servium Fragorem
Flaviam Ramum Clamorem
Is irregular change Vocem
Nominative Add E No us, I Add és
Villae Rami Arbores
puellae Servi patres
  pueri matres
Accusitive No A, Add ás No us, Add ós (Same as Plural Nominative)
Add és
    puellás ramós
    Villás puerós
    1. Verbs [Ville]
      1. Action words
        1. T=Singular (he or she)
        2. NT=Plural (they)
        3. More specific:
Ends in at Et it
Habitat Sedet Scribt
Ambulat   Legit
Plural= add ant Add ent add unt
Habitant sedent Scribunt
Est/sunt = are irregular verbs
      1. If the subject of the sentence is singular, the verb is singular.
      2. If the subject of the sentence is plural, the verb is plural.
      3. Infinitives
        1. a verb form that completes the meaning of another verb
Marcus Wants To climb The tree
Marcus vult asendere arborem
Subject Main Verb Infinitive D.O.
        1. Infintives, in English, mean, TO ____________
          1. To build
          2. To sleep
          3. To jump
          4. To play
          5. In Latin, end in RE
        2. conjugations:
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 THIS CHART IS IMPORTANT
End in AT End in ET End in RE Irregular
Vexat Ridet currit Audit
Habtat Videt More? Dormit  Only 3 irregulars that we know
Ambulat Terret   advenit
No T add RE No ET add ÉRE No IT Add ERE ???? make all IRE ????? To make Infinitive
Vexare Ridére Currit   How to do these ???
Habtare Vidére currere    
Ambulare Terrére      
    1. Adjectives [Burrow]
      1. Describes nouns
      2. Must agree with the nouns they describe in number
        1. ex. If nouns are plural, adj. is plural
Singular Plural
Laeta Laetae
Defessa Defaessae
      1. Must agree with Male/Female
        1. just add the noun ending
Female Sing Puella Laeta
Female Plural Puellae Laetae
Male Sing Servus Laetus
Male Plural Servui Laeti
          1. Remember that I sounds like E
      1. Also must agree in use
Subject Puella Laeta
D.O. Puellam Laetum
        1. Adj. must agree in number, gender, use
Female Sing Subject Puella Laeta
Female Sing D.O. Puellam Laetum
Male Sing D.O. Servum Laetum
        1. Adj. can not be irregular
          1. D.O. Adj. end in m or um
          2. See above (6.a.iii)
    1. Adverbs
      1. Describes verbs