File:Chapter 6.1 - The Scientific Revolution Outline.doc


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Chapter 6, Section 1: The Scientific Revolution Outline from September 30 2005

  1. Roots of Modern Science
      1. Before 1500, scholars believed Greeks and Romans and Bible
      2. Did not question world
    1. The Middle Ages
      1. Believed earth was center of universe
        1. moon, sun, planets moved around earth
        2. earth stood still fixed curtain of stars, with heaven beyond
        3. called geocentric
        4. supported by common sense
        5. invented by Aristotle; modified by Ptolemy
        6. church: “God” put us here and special place
      2. Scientific Revolution
        1. started in mid-1500s
        2. was a new way of thinking about natural world
        3. started in part by translating Muslim texts
        4. uncovered ancient books, which did not agree with each other
        5. moving out; expanding view of world; discovering new worlds
          1. navigators needed better instruments
        6. people looked closer at life
  2. Revolutionary Model of the Universe
    1. Heliocentric Theory
      1. Backed by common sense
      2. Did not accurately account for planet’s movement
      3. Nicolaus Copernicus spent 25 years researching movements
        1. believed sun was center of universe
        2. suppressed findings till last year of life
        3. thought revolve in perfect circles
        4. On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies
      4. After he died, little work on theory
      5. Tycho Brahe made careful observations and then died
      6. Johannas Kepler made sense of them
        1. proved that revolves around sun
        2. proves travel in ellipses not circles
    2. Galileo’s Discoveries
      1. Galileo Galilei watched chandelier swinging and disproved Aristotle theory
      2. Proved object fall at same speeds and accelerate when falling (does not fall at constant rate)
      3. Improved telescope to study in 1609
      4. In 1610, published Jupiter had spots and moons surface was not smooth and perfect (as Aristotle believed)
    3. Conflict with Church
      1. Frighten Catholic and Protestant leaders
      2. Went against church teachings and beliefs
      3. In 1616, church warned him to shut up; he kept findings secret
      4. In 1632, Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems
        1. he supported Copernicus
      5. in 1633, under threat of torture, he retracted statement in church Inquest
  3. Scientific Method
    1. A logical process of gathering and testing ideas
    2. Invented by Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
      1. Bacon criticized way Aristotle came up with info
      2. Thought should observe world to draw conclusions
      3. Descartes approached everything logically
      4. Everything should be doubted until proven
        1. “I think, therefore I am”; only way he could prove he existed
  4. Newton and Gravity
    1. disproved Aristotle that principles are totally different off earth
    2. Isaac Newton said all objects affected by same force
    3. Everything attracts, but mass of object and distance between them affects how great pull is
    4. 1687, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
    5. Believed “God” created this
  5. Scientific Revolution Spreads
    1. Scientific Instruments
      1. Zacharias Janssen – microscope
      2. Anton van Leeuwenhoke – discovered immature insects before birth (did not come to life suddenly)
      3. Evangelista Torricella – Mercury barometer to predict weather
      4. Fahrenheit and Celsius invented scales
    2. Medicine and Human Body
      1. Galen was accepted as fact
      2. Galan never dissected human; instead thought pigs where same as humans
      3. Vesalius dissected human (practice frowned upon)
      4. On the Fabric of the Human Family in 1543
      5. William Harvey Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals
        1. shows heart pumps blood in system
      6. Edward Jenner – smallpox vaccine
    3. Discoveries in Chemistry
      1. Robert Boyle used sci method in chem.
        1. The Skeptical Chemist 1661
        2. challenged Aristotle’s earth, wind, fire, water
        3. matter made of smaller particles
        4. Boyle’s Law
      2. Joseph Priestley separate oxygen from air
        1. like an “air of luxarry”

This entire thing called Enlightenment.

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